مشاهده در قالب پی دی اف چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
نوشته شده توسط حاتم حسینی   
شنبه ، 10 تیر 1396 ، 10:57

FamPlan: A Computer Program for Projecting Family Planning Requirements

John Stover, Laura HeatonProf. John Stover

What is FamPlan?

In the past several decades, more and more governments have become conscious of the importance of population and fertility as a key factor in human rights, the health of mothers and children, and social and economic development. Most developing countries now have population policies and programs and consider population in their national development plans. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo encouraged all countries to adopt goals of meeting the reproductive health needs of their populations within the next few decades. Thus, it becomes increasingly important to (1) ensure that the adopted goals and timetables are feasible and (2) determine the requirements for achieving the goals. Only then will the goals be effectively used in development planning and the implementation of expanded family planning programs.

In 1986, The Population Council and The Futures Group developed the Target-Setting Model (Bongaarts and Stover, 1986).  This model determined the family planning requirements to meet specific fertility goals.  It could be used to determine the number of family planning users, new acceptors, and commodities required by method and source to achieve a total fertility rate (TFR) goal given estimates of changes in the other proximate determinants of fertility (i.e., the proportion of women of  reproductive age in union, postpartum infecundability, etc.;  see Chapter III).  Researchers and family planning program managers widely used that model.  It was implemented in two computer programs and produced in English, French and Spanish.

In 1993 The Futures Group produced a revised version of this model called Target-Cost.  This version expanded the model’s scope in several ways, primarily by adding a cost component to the calculations.  A detailed manual was also prepared containing information on costing family planning programs.  The computer program was available in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Vietnamese.

In 1989 Research Triangle Institute began the development of FamPlan. FamPlan could also project the numbers of users and acceptors required to meet a fertility or prevalence goal, but was used most often to project the future implications of achieving a certain number of acceptors of different family planning methods.  In addition, FamPlan contained a module to calculate the costs and benefits of family planning and to calculate the improvements in per capita coverage of social services that might be expected as a result of reduced population growth.

The new family planning module in Spectrum continues the FamPlan name and incorporates elements of the previous programs.  The benefit-cost portion of the old FamPlan model has been moved to a separate module in Spectrum.

The new family planning module (FamPlan, Version 4) incorporates a number of changes suggested by users of earlier versions of both Target and FamPlan as well as changes required to meet the new needs of reproductive health programs following the ICPD guidelines. First, it includes a number of new options for setting program goals (meeting unmet need, achieving desired fertility). Second, it contains some modifications to the equations of the proximate determinants of fertility that have been developed from the wealth of new information from Demographic and Health Surveys since the original framework was developed. Third, the program includes some new options to make it more flexible (such as calculating on an age-aggregate or age-specific basis). Finally, the program has been rewritten in Windows and integrated into the Spectrum system of policy models under the POLICY Project.

It should be noted that the provision of high-quality family planning services is a complicated process requiring skilled and dedicated personnel; appropriate technologies, legislation and infrastructure; and adequate funds.  Although FamPlan can be used to calculate the family planning program costs to achieve a particular goal, it does not imply that the goals can be achieved merely by allocating the necessary funds.

In recent years there has been much public discussion about the use of targets in family planning programs.  In some programs, national targets are translated into regional, district, facility and even personnel targets.  In some cases, individual family planning workers are given annual targets for new acceptors that they must meet.  These approaches have been rightly criticized.  They put the emphasis on achieving numerical contraception targets rather than on providing high-quality reproductive health services to those who need it.  They also encourage misreporting by family planning workers trying to achieve impossible targets.  India, for example—in recognition of these problems—announced the abolition of its national targeting system in April 1996.  FamPlan is not intended to be used for setting individual targets for family planning workers.

FamPlan’s purpose has always been to help planners and policymakers understand the requirements for achieving national goals.  Users have always been encouraged to think about the needs of the population when considering future goals.  This latest version of FamPlan includes additional options that make this point even more explicit.  Goals can be set in terms of meeting unmet need or achieving the desired fertility rate.  The use of FamPlan for examining national goals should not be confused with the practice of setting individual-level targets for family planning workers.  In countries such as India, where target-driven approaches are being discarded, there is an urgent need for new approaches to setting goals and monitoring achievement.  Various approaches based on unmet need and desired fertility have been proposed and are being tested.  FamPlan can help in the development and application of these new approaches by illustrating the requirements to achieve various need-based goals.

Source: Washington, D.C. Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1999

A translated version of this program has been published and available in Persian. For more information click here and here.

آخرین بروز رسانی مطلب در شنبه ، 24 تیر 1396 ، 08:07
 

منوی اصلی سایت Main

صفحه‌­ی اصلی

موضوع

رویدادها

منابع

پیوندها

درباره­‌ی من

مترجم سایت Translate

خبرنامه News Letter

نام:

ایمیل:

کنفرانس‌ها Conference

Please wait while JT SlideShow is loading images...
Photo Title 1Photo Title 2Photo Title 3Photo Title 4Photo Title 5

آمار بازدیدکنندگان Visited

واژه‌نامه‎ی جمعیّت‌شناسی Online

English to Persian and Vice Versa, Click here

DemoPaedia, Click here

تازه‌های کتاب

روش‌های تحلیل جمعیّت‌شناختی: این کتاب توسّط سه تن از جمعیّت‌شناسان نامی علم جمعیّت‌شناسی یعنی فرحت یوسف، جو. ام. مارتین و دیوید ا. سوانسون در چهارده فصل به رشته‌ی تحریر درآمده و در سال 2014 توسّط انتشارات اسپرینگر چاپ و منتشر شده است. دکتر حاتم حسینی و میلاد بگی کتاب را به زبان فارسی برگرداندند. ترجمه‌ی فارسی کتاب در 460 صفحه و شمارگان 1000 نسخه توسّط مرکز نشر دانشگاه بوعلی سینا در تابستان 1396 چاپ و منتشر شد. مطالب این کتاب به شیوه‌­ای سازمان یافته است که اجازه می‌دهد تا خوانندگان از یک سطح مقدّماتی به روش‎های پیشرفته‎تر تحلیل­‌های جمعیّت‎شناختی حرکت کنند. این رویکرد با در نظرگرفتن این نکته است که ممکن است کاربران ...

ادامه‌ی مطلب

نرم‌افزارهای جمعیّتی

MORTPAK for Windows (Version 4.3): The MORTPAK software packages for demographic measurement have had widespread use throughout research institutions in developing and developed countries since their introduction in 1988. Version 4.0 of MORTPAK included 17. Version 4.3 of MORTPAK enhanced many of the original applications and added 3 more to bring the total to 20 applications. The package incorporates techniques that take advantage of the United Nations model life tables and generalized stable population equations. The package has been constructed with worksheet-style, full screen data entry which takes advantage of the interactive ...

ادامه‌ی مطلب