How China is rolling out the red carpet for couples who have more than one child

Stuart Gietel-BastenStuart Gietel-Basten

A rather remarkable turnaround has occurred in China. For a country famous for having the most comprehensive sets of policies designed to limit births, it is now introducing new policies to support parents who have a second child. In November 2015, China announced it would abandon its one-child policy and switch to a national two-child policy. The change came into force on January 1, 2016, with the immediate rationale being to tackle China’s rapidly ageing (and projected declining) population. Some predicted a huge baby boom. Others – including me – suggested that the reforms were “too little, too late”, and that “simply allowing people to have more children does not mean they will.”

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As China ends the one-child policy, what is its legacy?

One Child PolicyStephanie Gordon

China has announced the end to its infamous one-child policy, the restrictive rule that has limited many families to one child, and some to two children for the past 37 years. The changes will allow all couples to have two children. China has a long history of controlling its population. Throughout the 1950s, family planning was encouraged under Mao Zedong to promote economic growth. But only in 1973 did it become a political priority, with the national wan, xi, shao–“late marriage, longer spacing, and fewer children” campaign encouraging two children per couple. In June 1978, a policy of one child per couple was rigorously pursued as the government feared that China would not be able to modernise and support a large population at the same time.

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باروری نسلی باید ملاک برنامه‌های جمعیّتی قرار گیرد نه باروری مقطعی

Dr. Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavaziدر گفت‌وگو با دکتر محمّدجلال عبّاسی شوازی

برخی هشدارهای اغراق‌آمیز در زمینه‌ی کاهش نرخ رشد جمعیّت تأسّف‌آور است و از این نشأت می‌گیرد که برخی افراد شناخت درستی از شاخص‌های جمعیّتی ندارند. دکتر محمّدجلال عبّاسی شوازی، استاد جمعیّت‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران و رئیس انجمن جمعیّت‌شناسی ایران، در یک گفتگوی تلویزیونی با بیان این مطلب گفت: دو نوع نگرش نسبت به وضعیّت باروری داریم: «نگرش مقطعی» و «نگرش نسلی». در شرایط فعلی و با توجّه به ساختار سنّی جمعیّت کشور، باروری مقطعی تحت تأثیر وضعیّت اقتصادی اجتماعی حال حاضر کشور قرار دارد. محاسبات انجام شده با روش‌های مختلف نشان داده که میزان باروری کشور در سال 1390 بین 1/8 تا 2/1 در نوسان بوده است. امّا باید توجّه داشت که ملاک برنامه‌ریزی‌ها باید باروری نسلی باشد؛ چرا که باروری مقطعی می‌تواند ...

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Demography
مشاهده در قالب پی دی اف چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
جمعه ، 8 ارديبهشت 1396 ، 16:51

Population and Development: The Demographic Transition

Tim DysonTim Dyson

The demographic transition and its related effects of population growth, fertility decline and ageing populations are fraught with problems and controversy. When discussed in relation to the global south and the modern project of development, the questions and answers become more problematic. Population and Development expertly guides the reader through the demographic transition's origins in the Enlightenment and Europe, through to the rest of the world. Whilst the phenomenon continues to cause unsustainable population growth with disastrous economic and environmental implications, the author examines how its processes have underlain previous periods of sustained economic growth; helped to liberate women from the domestic domain; and contributed greatly to the rise of modern democracy. This accessible and expert analysis will enable any student or expert in development studies to understand complex and vital demographic theory. This is a book about the central role of the demographic transition in the creation of the modern world. It argues that you cannot understand the modern process of ‘development’ unless you put the demographic transition centre-stage. The great declines in human mortality and fertility that define the transition, plus the major changes in population size and structure that result from these declines, all have immense implications for the past, present and future of the world.

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مشاهده در قالب پی دی اف چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
دوشنبه ، 12 تیر 1396 ، 05:56

Contraceptive Use Among Women in Ogoja and Obudu Local Government Areas, Cross River State, Nigeria

David B. Ugal, Boniface A. UshieDr. Boniface A. Ushie

Abstract

Sexual behaviour in human societies is embedded in a complex web of shared ideas. Moral rules and regulations, obvious associations and obscured symbols are part of the complex behaviour patterns. Sexual behaviour varies from one culture to another, from one stage of development to another as well as from one period of history to another. Many factors including biological, social, political, educational, economic and religious affect sexual behaviour. This study was undertaken to assess women’s knowledge of modern contraception, examine the role of culture in contraception use and find out the relationship between background characteristics and contraception use. The results of this study indicate that knowledge of contraception is relatively low in both rural and urban centres of the study area. Given the importance of family planning to the reduction of growing population, it is crucial to embark on an aggressive education and enlightenment of the people on the need to use contraception in order to prevent unwanted, unintended and ill-timed pregnancies. The media should be effectively harnessed to take its rightful position in the dissemination of information to the people. African Population Studies, 2013, 27(2): 155-163, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11564/27-2-437. Click here to get the paper.

 
مشاهده در قالب پی دی اف چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
چهارشنبه ، 30 فروردين 1396 ، 07:48

Qualitative Analysis of Childbearing Action of Arab Couples in the City of Ahwaz

Dr. Hatam HosseiniHatam Hosseini, Soleiman Pakseresht, Mehdi Rezaei, Mariam Mehreganfar

Abstract

Fertility is one of the main three factors which affects the population changes. Currently، it is considered as a social issue in Iranian society. Although lots of quantitative research have been conducted to illustrate the determinants of fertility in Iran، but deep perception of fertility needs to study its meaning dimensions too; the dimensions that uncovers the people’s interpretation of their social world، events، conditions and forces which are related to their childbearing action. Methodologically، this study adopted a qualitative approach to concentrate deeply on childbearing action and its meaning to the actors. Grounded theory is the main method to analyze the data. The data has been collected by 20 deep interview with Arab couples in the city of Ahwaz. The results show that according to content of childbearing action، attributed meanings to the action، and realization of this action، three meaning approaches are emerged: childbearing as a consolidate-amendable action، childbearing as a perceptive-reflexive action، and finally childbearing as a limitation and secured action. Journal of Population Association of Iran, 9(17): 141-169. Click here to get the paper.

 
مشاهده در قالب پی دی اف چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
دوشنبه ، 15 خرداد 1396 ، 05:52

Family Planning and Women’s Educational Advancement in Tehran, Iran

Dr. Amir ErfaniAmir Erfani

Abstract

This study examines the impact of contraceptive use on women’s educational advancement as an indicator of female empowerment, using retrospective data from the 2009 Tehran Fertility Survey. The results show that 15 per cent of married women continued their education after marriage. Also, women using modern contraceptives before a first birth were more likely to experience a 1–2-year increase in education level after marriage, controlling for other factors. Recent cohorts were more likely to continue their education after marriage, especially those who used modern vs. traditional contraceptives. The findings clearly indicate that family planning use after marriage enables women to advance their education by freeing them from reproductive activities. Canadian Studies in Population (2015), 42(1-2): 35-52. Click here to get the paper.

 
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روش‌های تحلیل جمعیّت‌شناختی: این کتاب توسّط سه تن از جمعیّت‌شناسان نامی علم جمعیّت‌شناسی یعنی فرحت یوسف، جو. ام. مارتین و دیوید ا. سوانسون در چهارده فصل به رشته‌ی تحریر درآمده و در سال 2014 توسّط انتشارات اسپرینگر چاپ و منتشر شده است. دکتر حاتم حسینی و میلاد بگی کتاب را به زبان فارسی برگرداندند. ترجمه‌ی فارسی کتاب در 460 صفحه و شمارگان 1000 نسخه توسّط مرکز نشر دانشگاه بوعلی سینا در تابستان 1396 چاپ و منتشر شد. مطالب این کتاب به شیوه‌­ای سازمان یافته است که اجازه می‌دهد تا خوانندگان از یک سطح مقدّماتی به روش‎های پیشرفته‎تر تحلیل­‌های جمعیّت‎شناختی حرکت کنند. این رویکرد با در نظرگرفتن این نکته است که ممکن است کاربران ...

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نرم‌افزارهای جمعیّتی

MORTPAK for Windows (Version 4.3): The MORTPAK software packages for demographic measurement have had widespread use throughout research institutions in developing and developed countries since their introduction in 1988. Version 4.0 of MORTPAK included 17. Version 4.3 of MORTPAK enhanced many of the original applications and added 3 more to bring the total to 20 applications. The package incorporates techniques that take advantage of the United Nations model life tables and generalized stable population equations. The package has been constructed with worksheet-style, full screen data entry which takes advantage of the interactive ...

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